Content Standards Addressed

Implementation of WaterBotics helps educators address a variety of nationally recognized science, technology, engineering, and mathematics standards.

Next Generation Science Standards



Asking Questions and Defining Problems

Developing and Using Models

Planning and Carrying Out Investigations

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Constructing Explanations and Designing Solutions

Engaging in Argument from Evidence

PS2.A: Forces and Motion: Propulsion, drag, buoyancy, and gravity combine to produce the robot's motion.

PS2.C: Stability and Instability in Physical Systems: The controllable orientation of the robot must also be stable when submerged.

ETS1.A: Defining and Delimiting Engineering Problems: Each mission has a goal with clear, measureable objectives and reasonable contraints.

ETS1.B: Developing Possible Solutions: Creative ideas are encouraged and then tested for viability.

ETC1.C: Optimizing the Design Solution: Robots are repeatedly modified and tested until they achieve the mission goal.

Patterns: Which combinations of gears result in better propulstion? Which configurations of floats and ballast result in stable robot orientations?

Cause and Effect: When a change is made to a robot, how does that affect its performance? Why?

Systems and System Models: Robots act as experimental models that allow interaction with motion laws. Robots serve as models for real-life aquatic vehicles.

Structure and Function: How does the shape and mass of a robot affect its motion?

Stability and Change: What makes a robot stable when underwater? How can the stability of an underwater robot be changed?

National Science Education Standards


As a result of the activities, all students should develop an understanding of:

  • Motions and forces
  • Abilities of technological design
  • Understanding about science and technology
  • Science and technology in society

International Technology and Engineering Educators Association (ITEEA)
Technological Literacy Standards


  • Standard 3: Students will develop an understanding of the relationships among technologies and the connections between technology and other fields of study.
  • Standard 8: Students will develop an understanding of the attributes of design.
  • Standard 9: Students will develop an understanding of engineering design.
  • Standard 10: Students will develop an understanding of the role of troubleshooting, research and development, invention and innovation, and experimentation in problem solving.
  • Standard 11: Students will develop abilities to apply the design process.

The International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE)
National Educational Technology Standards (NETS)


  • Standard 1: Creativity and Innovation
    Students demonstrate creative thinking, construct knowledge, and develop innovative products and processes using technology.
    1. apply existing knowledge to generate new ideas, products, or processes.
    2. create original works as a means of personal or group expression.
    3. use models and simulations to explore complex systems and issues.
    4. identify trends and forecast possibilities.
  • Standard 3: Research and Information Fluency
    Students apply digital tools to gather, evaluate, and use information.
    1. evaluate and select information sources and digital tools based on the appropriateness to specific tasks.
  • Standard 4: Critical Thinking, Problem Solving, and Decision Making
    Students use critical thinking skills to plan and conduct research, manage projects, solve problems, and make informed decisions using appropriate digital tools and resources.
    1. identify and define authentic problems and significant questions for investigation.
    2. plan and manage activities to develop a solution or complete a project.
    3. use multiple processes and diverse perspectives to explore alternative solutions.
  • Standard 6: Technology Operations and Concepts
    Students demonstrate a sound understanding of technology concepts, systems, and operations.
    1. select and use applications effectively and productively.
    2. troubleshoot systems and applications.